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英语语言学一、绪论语言学的定义语言学的研究范畴几对基本概念语言的定义语言的甄别特征What is linguistics? 什么是语言学?Linguistics is generally defined as the scientific study of language/ It studies not any particular language/ but languages in general/ 语言学是对语言科学地进行研究的学科。语言学所要研究的不是某一种特定的语言,而是人类所有语言的特性。The scope of linguistics 语言学研究的范畴Phonetics语音学Phonology音系学Morphology形态学Syntax句法学Semantics语义学Pragmatics语用学Sociolinguistics社会语言学Psycholinguistics心理语言学Applied linguistics应用语言学Prescriptive vs/ descriptive 规定性与描述性Descriptive:a linguistic study describes and analyzes the language people actually use/Prescriptive/ it aims lay down rules for “correct” behavior/Modern linguistics is descriptive/ its investigations are based on authentic/ and mainly spoken data/Traditional grammar is prescriptive/ it is based on “high” written languageSynchronic vs/ diachronic 共时性与历史性The description of a language at some point in time is a synchronic studyThe description of a language as it changes through time is a diachronic studyIn modern linguistics/ synchronic study seems to enjoy priority over diachronic study/Speech and writing 口头语与书面语Speech enjoys priority over writing in modern linguistics study for the following reasons/ (1) speech precedes writing in terms of evolution(2) a large amount of communication is carried out in speech tan in writing(3) speech is the form in which infants acquire their native languageLanguage and parole 语言与言语Language refers to the abstract linguistic system shared by all the members of a speech communityParole refers to the realization of language in actual useCompetence and performance 能力与运用Chomsky defines competence as the ideal users knowledge of the rules of his languagePerformance/ the actual realization of this knowledge in linguistic communicationWhat is language? 什么是语言?Language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols used for human communicationCharacteristics of language/ 语言的特性Language is a rule-governed systemLanguage is basically vocalLanguage is arbitrary (the fact different languages have different words for the same object is a good illustration of the arbitrary nature of language/ This conventional nature of language is well illustrated by a famous quotation from Shakespeares play “Romeo and Juliet”/ “A rose by any other name would smell as sweet/”)Language is used for human communicationDesign features of language 语言的甄别特征American linguist Charles Hockett specified 12 design features/1) arbitrariness 武断性2) productivity 创造性3) duality 二重性4) displacement移位性5) cultural transmission 文化传递性二、音系学语言的声音媒介什么是语音学发音***音标宽式和严式标音法英语语音的分类音系学和语音学语音、音位、音位变体音位对立、互补分部、最小对立几条音系规则超切分特征Two major media of communication/ speech and writingThe limited range of sounds which are meaningful in human communication and are of interest to linguistic studies are the phonic medium of language/ 用于人类语言交际的声音称为语音,这些数目有限的一组语音构成了语言的声音媒介。Phonetics语音学/ is defined as the study of the phonic medium of language/ it is concerned with all the sounds that occur in the worlds language/ Three branches of phonetics / articulatory phonetics 发音语音学(most highly developed)/ auditory phonetics 听觉语音学and acoustic phonetics 声学语音学Organs of speech 发音***The articulatory apparatus of a human being are contained in three important areas or cavities/The pharyngeal cavity咽腔-the throatThe oral cavity口腔-the mouthThe nasal cavity 鼻腔-the noseVibration of the vocal cords (声带) results in a quality of speech sounds called “voicing” 浊音,which is a feature of all vowels 元音 and some consonants 辅音。单词补充:01) velum/ The soft palate/ 软腭02) uvula/ A small/ conical/ fleshy mass of tissue suspended from the center of the soft palate/ 小舌,悬雍垂悬垂在软腭中央的小的圆锥状肉块03) larynx/ n/ 喉04) vocal cord/ 声带05) membrane/ n/ A thin/ pliable layer of tissue covering surfaces or separating or connecting regions/ structures/ or organs of an animal or a plant/ 膜薄而柔软的组织层,覆盖在表面或分割连接各种区域、结构或动植物*** 06) the soft palate/ 软腭07) the hard palate/ 硬腭08) the teeth ridge/ 齿龈09) alveolus/ A tooth socket in the jawbone 牙槽颚骨处的牙***10) the teeth/ 牙齿11) the lips/ 上下唇12) blade of tongue/ 舌面13) back of tongue/ 舌根14) pharyngeal cavity/ 咽腔15) nasal cavity/ 鼻腔16) velar/ Articulated with the back of the tongue touching or near the soft palate/ as (g) in good and (k) in cup/软腭音的用舌头后部挂触或靠近软腭清楚地发音的,如在 good中的(g)以及在 cup中的(k)17) the tip of the tongue/ 舌尖18) the upper front teeth/ 上齿19) the roof of the mouth/ 上颚20) the lower lip/ 下唇音标宽式和严式标音法International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) The vowels (monophthongs and diphthongs) 元音(单元音&双元音)The constants 辅音Broad transcription/ transcription with letter-symbols only/ (in dictionaries and teaching textbooks)用一个符号来表示一个语音的标音方式叫做宽式标音法,这种音标法常见于词典和教科书。Narrow transcription/ the transcription with diacritics/但实际上, 同一语音在不通的语音环境中的发音不尽相同, 比如Pit和spit中的/P/音发音就不一样。在宽式标音的基础上, 再用变音符号表示同一语音在不同的语音环境下不同发音的标音法叫做窄式标音法。Classification of English speech sounds英语语音的分类The basic difference between a vowel and a constant is that in the pronunciation of the former the air that comes from the lungs meets with no obstruction of any kind in the throat/ the nose/ or the mouth/ while in that of the latter it is obstructed in one way or another/Classification of English constants英语辅音分类此主题相关图片如下:Classification of English vowels/the position of the tongue in the mouth舌位高低/the openness of the mouth/口的张开程度/the shape of the lips园唇与否/length of the vowels元音的长度此主题相关图片如下:Phonology 音系学Phonology and phonetics音系学和语音学Phonetics is of a general nature/ it is interested in all the speech sounds used in all human languages/语音学研究的是人类所有语言的语音,旨在对语音进行描述和分类。Phonology is interested in the system of sounds of a particular language/ it aims to discover how speech sounds in a language form patterns and how these sounds are used to convey meaning in linguistic communication/音系学研究的重点是特定语言的语音体系,语音表达意义作用。Phone,phoneme and allophone语音,音位,音位变体Phones/ which can be simply defined as the speech sounds we use when speaking a language/语音是语音学研究的单位, 是一个个具体的声音。Phonology is concerned with the speech sounds which distinguish meaning/音位是音系学研究的单位,是抽象的概念, 每一个音位是一组语音特征的***体,音位具有区别意义的作用。The different which can represent a phoneme in different phonetic environments are called the allophones of that phoneme/音位变体是一个音位在特定的语音环境力的具体体现, 同一音位在不同语音环境里体现为不同的变体,也就是语音。Phonemic contrast/ complementary distribution/ and minimal pair音位对立,互补分布,最小对立对rope and robe that /P/ and /b/ can occur in the same environments and they distinguish meaning/ therefore they are in phonemic contrast/可以出现在不同语音组合中的同一为止, 产生意义差别。/P/ and /Ph/ these two allophones of the same phoneme are said to be in complementary distribution/When two different forms are identical in every way except for one sound segment which occurs in the same place in the strings/ the two words are said to form a minimal pair/ pen and ben最小对立对指出现在同一位置上的一个音之外其余都相同的两个语音组合。Some rules in phonology几条音系规则Sequential rules 序列规则 :blik/ klib / bilk/ kilb is possible/ But lbki/ ilbk/ bkil / ilkb not possible/Assimilation rules 同化规则Deletion rule 省略规则Sign/ design/ there is no g soundSignature/ designation the g is pronounced/Delete a g when it occurs before a final nasal constant/Suprasegmental features- stress/ tone/ intonation超切分特征重音, 声调,语调the phonemic features that occur above the level of the segments are called suprasegmental features/超切分特征指切分即单音层面以上的音系特征。三、 MORPHOLOGY 形态学 请结合词汇学中的构词法进行学习。语素:语言最小的意义单位语素的类型复合词的类型复合词的特征Morphology is a branch of grammar which studies the internal structure of words and the rules by which words are formed/ It is divided into two sub-branches/ inflectional morphology and lexical or derivational morphology/形态学研究单词的内部结构以及构词规则, 有屈折形态学和词汇形态学两大分支。Morpheme/the smallest meaningful unit of language/语素:语言最小的意义单位。Free Morpheme/ A free morpheme is one that can stand by itself/ (independent)***语素可以作为单词***使用。Bound Morpheme/ A bound morpheme is one that cannot stand by itself/粘着语素必须和其他语素结合成单词Bound Morpheme includes two types/ (1) root (2)Affix(词缀)1)Inflectional affixes (屈折词缀)(inflectional morphemes)/affixes attached to the end of words to indicate grammatical relationships are inflectional2)Derivational affixes(派生词缀) A) prefix/ A prefix comes before words/ B)suffixAn adjective suffix(形容词后缀) that is added to the stem/ whatever classis belongs to / the result will be an adjective/free=free root(***词根)Morpheme(词素)Bound root prefixbound derivational affix suffixinflectionalRoot and stem(词根和词干)1) Root 2) StemThe differences between root and stem/A root is the basic form of a word which cannot be further analyzed without total loss of identity/ A stem is the surplus part after the cutting of inflectional morpheme in a word with inflectional morphemes/can be further analyzed/ it sometimes could be a root/Individualistic UndesirablesIndividualist (stem) undesirable (stem)Individual (stem) desirable (stem)dividual (stem) desire (root/ stem)divide(root/ stem)Affixation词缀法(Derivation派生法):adding word-formation or derivational affixes to stem/Prefixation前缀:Its the formation of new words by adding a prefixes to stems/1)表示否定nagative prefixes/ un-/non/in-/dis/a- etc/2)reversative or privative prefixes/ un-/de-dis etc/3)表示贬义pejorative prefixes/ mis-/ mal-/ pseudo- etc/4)表示程度degree or size prefixes/ arch-/ super-/out-/sub-/over-/under-/hyper-/ultra-/mini- etc/5)表示方向、态度orientation & attitude prefixes/counter-/contra-/anti-/pro- etc/6)locative prefixes/super-/sub-/inter-/trans- etc/7)表示时间、次序time and order prefixes/fore-/pre-/post-/ex-/re- etc/8)表示数量number prefixes/uni-/mono-/bi-/di-/tri-/multi-/poly- etc/9)混杂miscellaneous prefixes:auto-/ neo-/ pan-/ vice-Suffixation后缀/ Its the formation of a new word by adding suffixes to stems/ 1)noun suffixes 2)adjective suffixes 3)Adverb suffixes 4)verb suffixesCompounding复合法 (also called composition)Compounding/ is the formation of new words by joining two or more stems Formation of compoundsNoun + noun(名词名词) handbook/ sunshineAdjective + noun(形容词名词)highway/ deadlineAdjective + noun + -ed(形容词名词ed)white-haired/ red-eyedVerb + noun(动词名词)driveway/ breakwater(挡水板)Adverb + noun(副词名词)downtown/ overburdenNoun + verb(名词动词)toothpick/ snowfallVerb + adverb(动词副词)follow-up/ kick-offNoun + adjective(名词形容词)world-famous/ lifelong-ing form + noun(ing+名词)baking power/ dining-roomother forms(其他)go-between/ father-in-lawFeatures of compounds复合词的特征1/Orthographically书写特征(Compounds are written in three ways/ solid(airmail) hyphenated(air-conditioning) open(air force/ air raid)2/Syntactically句法特征(复合词的词性一般取决于复合词最后一个成分的词性)3/Semantically语义特征(复合词的意义具有习语性质,许多复合词的意义都不是其构成成分意义和总和)4/Phonetically语音特征(复合词的单词重音落在第一个构成成分上)四、句法学句子的构成句子的类型句子的线性排列与层次结构词类词组类短语结构规则短语结构 规则的循环性X标杆理论名词词组移位与WH移位其他类型的移位深层结构与表层结构移动a规则普遍语法原则普遍语法参数Syntax is a subfield of linguistics that studies the sentence structure of language/As a major component of grammar/ syntax consists of a set of abstract rules that allow words to be combined with other words to form grammatical sentences/句法是一个由一套数量有限的抽象规则组成的系统。Normally a sentence consists of at least a subject and its predicate which contains a finite verb or a verb phrase/句子通常由主语和谓语两大部分构成。 谓语通常由限定动词或动词词组构成。The referring expression is grammatically called subject/ 主语是指句子中所被指称的对象。Types of sentences句子的类型The simple sentence/ consists of a single clause which contains a subject and a predicate and stands alone as its own sentence/简单句含一个主语和一个谓语的***句子The coordinate sentence/ contains two clauses joined by a linking word called coordinating conjunction/并列句含由连接词串联起来的两个句子成分The complex sentence/ contains two/ or more/ clauses/ one of which is incorporated into the other/The two clauses in a complex sentence hold unequal status/ one subordinating the other/复合句由两个或两个以上的子句组成, 其中之一为主要子句, 其余为从属子句。The liner and hierarchical structure of sentences 句子的线性排列与层次结构The liner word order of a sentence/ when a sentence is uttered or written down/ the words of the sentence are produced one after another in sequence/句子的线性排列, 句子无论就其口头或书面表现形式看, 所含的次都按线性次序排列。(表面上的排列)The hierarchical structure of a sentence:sentences are organized with words of the same syntactic category/ such as noun phrase(NP)/or verb phrase (VP)/ grouped together/句子的结构是一种由名词词组和动词词组等句法成分单位构成的层次性结构。Tree diagrams of sentence structureSNP VPV SNP VPV NP John suggested (that)Mary take the ling
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