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演讲技巧总结x
收录时间:2022-11-25 22:59:48  浏览:0
无论你在哪里演讲,成功的即兴演讲最重要的因素都是缜密的思维和有条理的组织。在比赛中,你有三分钟时间发表即兴演讲。首先确定你要阐述的两至三个主要观点,然后简明、清楚地加以讨论。必要时使用实例、数据或证词来支持你的观点。因为很多即兴演讲题目都是在问你个人的观点,你可以在演讲中充分利用自己的经历。最重要的是,一定要避免漫谈和重复。阐明一个观点之后就接下去谈下一个。你可用“第一”、“第二”、“第三”这样的路标来明确每一个新观点的出现,以方便观众理解。当你的演讲接近尾声时,要用简练的话语作结,并为观众的关注表示感谢。好的内容包括好的主题以及有说服力的材料做支持。在即兴演讲中,要注意这两点。 1强有力的材料做支持 论据的类型最基本可分为三种:实例、统计数字以及引用别人的言语。对于即兴演讲来说,现场能够找到恰当的统计数字是非常困难的。因此在即兴演讲时,引用别人的言语和用实例来证明是最常见的两种方式。那么应该选择哪种类型的例子来做论据呢?在比赛现场上进行即兴演讲时,最切实可行的、最容易做到的就是用自己或自己周围发生的例子来说明你的观点,信手拈来,不用绞尽脑汁,演讲起来最自如,最自信;这样做无形之中也强化了自己的可信度,比较容易打动听众。如在“21世纪(爱立信杯”2003年第8届全国英语演讲比赛中获得第二名的***学学生王媛在即兴演讲中是这样说的, If indeed I had a chance to choose for my life again/ I think the time setting I would choose is in the late 1970s and the early 1980s/ That was when the Chinese government began to adopt the policy of reform and openness/ And the place setting I would choose is in some places in the western part of China/ Why? Let me share with you my reasons/ Well/ when I firstly saw this/ errr/ heard this topic/ I think it reminded me of an experience a few years ago/ I still clearly remember that/ uhh/ at that time/ some fellow students and I went to visit a primary school in a very poor village and we were working as tutors there/ There/ all the classrooms were in a very old building and many windows and doors were broken/ so/ when it was raining/ all the children had to move to a corner in order not to get wet/ Inside the classroom/ five to six children were sharing one desk normally shared by two and many of the desks and chairs were broken/ too/ And immediately after we began to teach them English/ it became very clear to us that many of these students were very diligent and were very willing to work hard/ But later on/ as we talked among ourselves/ we got to know that they/ many of them/ could not finish their schooling just because of poverty/ I think that this experience enabled us to see that we belong to a few group of/ a group of few people that are fortunately enough to receive a college education/ 这段演讲是她真情实感的流露,表达起来自如,而且自信,也容易和听众进行真正的交流。 在选择使用论据时,尤其是在竞赛当中,需要特别注意以下两个原则。 (1)演讲的支持材料要切题。 所选择的支持材料要为你的中心观点或主题服务,不能偏离这一点,不能跑题。记得一个学生在参加比赛时,抽到的即兴演讲题目是,“中国成为世界贸易组织的成员对于我们国家有什么主要影响?”她在演讲中讲了一个很长的故事,一个年轻人在海边拾贝壳,碰到了一个老人,以及和这个老人之间展开的对话。这个故事占了整个演讲的三分之二,然后很牵强地把这个故事和她抽到的题目联系在一起。尽管她的故事叙述得很流利,但在整个即兴演讲结束后,听众仍然不知她对这个问题的回答是什么?很显然,演讲者在赛前准备了几个故事,准备在即兴演讲时使用。的确,在赛前要做充分的准备,准备各个领域的数据、例子、权威专家的话等,做好充分的调研,以便在比赛中游刃有余。但切记你所选择的支持材料一定要与主题相关,为主题服务,能够帮助听众更加深入地了解你的观点,决不能哗众取宠。不切题的即兴演讲绝不会得高分。 (2)演讲的支持材料要贴近听众。 演讲的支持材料最好是听众熟悉的,贴近听众,不仅有利于听众理解、接受和吸收你的信息,而且容易产生共鸣。笔者作为辅导教师参加过多次的全国英语演讲比赛,在比赛中发现了一个很奇怪的现象。有很多学生举例子或引用别人的话时,往往愿意用国外的例子或国外名人说的话来支持他们的论点。学生也许有些许担心,“如果用土生土长的例子,外国评委可能会不知道,不了解背景,会影响他们对整个演讲的评判。”然而在一次比赛中,一位来自美国的演讲专家在做点评时说到,“不用担心我们会不了解,或听不懂。问题是作为一个外国人,我们在这里希望听到有关你们国家的人、事、思想、文化,而不是我们国家的名人如林肯、克林顿,他们说了什么,干了什么。”他一语道破了问题的关键,演讲者所说的要和你的听众拉近距离,讲一些本地发生的事情,发生的事情对听众产生了什么样的影响,用当地的文化、理念来解释你的观点,这样更容易在听众中产生共鸣。但并不是说就一定不能用国外的例子或观点。要全方位地选择论据,选择恰当的材料为你的观点服务。 在“21世纪(澳门之星杯”2006年第11届全国英语演讲比赛中复旦大学的胡懿在即兴演讲(Should laws be fixed or flexible?)中是这样说的, Well/ actually/ very accidentally this morning/ when we were sort of imprisoned in that preparing room/ actually we had a fierce debate over law/ And now I would like to share some of my thoughts with you on whether we should adopt flexible laws or fixed laws/ Well/ first of all/ I admit that there are some cases of injustice in our society/ For example/ last year there was a famous case of Wang Bingyu/ which aroused a great controversy in society/ Actually Wang Bingyu was a migrant worker/ who failed for several times to get his payment from his boss/ And obviously that boss treated him very badly/ He didnt send him to hospital when he was ill/ and he didnt treat him with very good food and also made him make/ do extra work without any extra money/ And out of a rage/ Wang killed several of the/ several people in charge/ out of a great rage/ And that case aroused a great controversy in society/ Actually when I read the story/ I did show some sympathy for that guy/ because I think it was the fault of the boss in the first place/ It was him that didnt pay him the payment that he deserved/ So I feel sympathetic for him/ 她讲述了一个在我国曾经轰动一时的案例,台下的听众可能听说过,也可能不知道这个故事,但这毕竟是发生在听众周围的,贴近听众,这样听众便会很容易理解演讲者所要传达的信息。 在一分钟的即兴演讲中,你用具体的事例来仔细阐述观点的时间可能非常受限。在这一分钟之内,你很可能只给出主要观点的框架,那么要想真正打动听众恐怕要依赖于主题和观点到底如何。 2好的主题与观点 在前面谈过选择题目或角度时应遵循的一些具体原则,如:题目和角度一定是你有切身感触的;应该具有创造性,是听众感兴趣的;应该具体;应真实而有意义;所选择的观点或角度一定能经得起推敲和琢磨,是全面的。除了这些基本原则外,在比赛过程中处理即兴演讲时,还应该特别强调两点:切题和严谨。 (1)切题 切题最重要。一般而言,选手拿到的题目都是以问题的形式出现的。你需要表明在这个问题上的立场和观点,决不可以含糊其词,态度闪烁不定,站在中间,既谈好处又谈弊端。如果坚持这样,那么评委和听众就会认为你是在逃避,你的观点不明确,态度不明朗,那也就很难胜出。这点在CCTV杯演讲比赛中尤其重要,因为即兴演讲是为以后的辩论做准备。例如在2005年CCTV杯演讲比赛中,一位学生抽到的题目是/ “Who should be the focus of investment in sports/ the general population or potential Olympic champions?”当时他的回答是不偏不倚的,很显然二者都应该被照顾到,给予资金的扶持。但问题是,在这种情况下,他必须要做出选择,而不能徘徊于两者之间。否则,评委和听众就会怀疑你的态度和出发点,演讲效果自然也就大打折扣。 (2) 观点的严谨性 观点不能偏激,一定要严谨。这里的严谨有以下几层意思。 * 观点本身能够站得住脚,有充足的材料可以说明论证。 * 表达观点的语言本身要严谨,准确,尽量避免绝对化的字眼,如 “never/ every/ all/ nothing/ nobody“等,这些绝对化判断太容易遭到攻击。 * 观点需要***和修饰。要用发展性的眼光来处理你的观点。以上面那个题目来为例,如果既有大量资金扶持运动员又能让普通群众受益,那是最好的,但这是一种理想的画面。现实往往和理想有一段距离,现阶段没有足够的资金平衡二者的利益,答案又是什么呢?你可以有自己的看法和答案,但一定要有充足的论据支持。请注意:刚才我使用了现阶段三个字。这就意味着是用发展的眼光来看到问题,不仅要看到事物的现阶段,也要看到将来发展的方向也就是期望得到的理想状态,即两类人群都会受益。 * 承认你的观点有修正和完善的余地。你的观点可能只是你目前认识的一个方面,或者是现阶段你的一种想法,它仍然有完善的余地告知演讲的话题/The subject of my presentation is/I shall be speaking today about/Todays topic is/Today I am here to talk about/引起听众的兴趣/ Im going to be speaking about something that is vitally important to all of us/My presentation will help solve a problem that has puzzled people for years/告诉听众内容要点/I am going to examine these topics in the following order (/first/ /next/ /after that/ /finally)Ive divided my talk into five parts/I will deal with these topics in chronological order/There are (a number of) factors that may affect/We all ought to be aware of the following points/结束语/In conclusion/ Id like to/Id like to finish by/Finally/I hope I have made myself understoodLet me end by saying/引出某个要点/The most important point to make is/My first point is/Another aspect to bear in mind is/ It must also be remembered that/We mustnt forget that/This brings me to/换个说法:Let me put that (in) another way/In other words/Alternatively you could say that/If I can rephrase that/澄清观点:I will try and put that more clearly/more simply/Dont misunderstand me/ what I mean is/I will just repeat that to make it clear/This is not to say
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