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让开放思维成为一种习惯---福建省闽清一中 邱秀娟 2016.11.22
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让开放思维成为一种习惯福建省闽清第一中学 邱秀娟开放性作文/其特点是图片提供了一定的信息。但考生在写作过程中/不能把文章内容仅仅拘泥于图画表层/而是需要对图片内容进行理解、加工/挖掘其中的内涵。此外/因为此题目具有一定的开放性/在确定好写作主题的基础上/考生可以充分展开自己的想象力/把图中所蕴含的深刻内容用自己独到的语言表述出来。开放性作文一般不提供具体的情景/也没有固定的模式***/但其体裁和词数仍然要受制于所提供的内容。做此类题型时/审题非常关键。还要根据所判定的体裁打开思路/发挥想象。写此类作文时/要突出重点/直奔主题/不要随便发挥。 针对开放性作文的灵活性与开放性/考生可以按以下步骤写作/一、认真审题/把握要求/找准提示语中的关键句。 开放性作文需要考生根据试题提示的要求进行立意/确定文章的中心思想。立意的基础是审题。因此/考生在着手写作之前/要认真审题/把握命题要求/找准提示语中的关键句。二、依据关键句/草拟提纲/梳理文章脉络。通过认真审题/找准关键句以后/下一步的任务就是安排已选定的材料/为自己心中所设想的材料草拟一个提纲/梳理清楚先后顺序。这样写起来就会有条不紊、条理清楚、详略得当/使得所写的文章中心突出。三、准确定位人称、时态。遣词造句要扬长避短。1/开放性作文通常以提供一个故事材料片段为主。大部分情况下/文中所使用的动词时态以一般过去时为主/但人称的使用较为灵活/考生应该依据文章提示准确定位人称。2/在人称、时态准确定位以后/考生应将重点放在文章的遣词造句上。考生应尽可能运用自己熟悉的单词、短语或句型来灵活表达/但要避免单词、短语或句型的重复使用。简而言之/开放性作文的写作思路和汉语作文非常相似。首先要明确主题/然后根据主题构建文章的主体结构/即写作提纲/最后在写作过程中要突出主题、层次分明。在写作议论文类的开放性看图作文时要注意下面几个方面,并掌握一些常用经典句型:1第一段阐述图画中的内容与主题。经常用到的句型有:(1)As is shown in the picture/(2)As we can see in the picture/(3)In the picture we can see that/(4)From the picture I can see/(5)What an interesting picture!2第二段结合考生的生活实际或学习实际,阐明图画的寓意及其对我们生活的启示,常用到的句型:(1)The picture is trying to tell us that/(2)The picture reflects a common social problem/(3)The picture vividly shows/(4)The picture conveys a message that/(5)I think the picture wants to show us that/(6)From the picture/ we can draw a conclusion that/(7)As the picture suggests,/(8)This picture makes me think a lot about/(9)It reminds me of/一开放作文试题特点:1)借助一幅漫画,鼓励学生发散思维,表达自己对画面中内容的理解。2)在观察、理解试题的前提下,从不同角度展开想象,表达自己观点。3)试题的趣味性与解题的挑战性;4)能力的发展性与答案的开放性。二开放作文的关键:审题最为关键关注开放作文文章结构漫画的画面细节 漫画的夸张寓意(与现实的矛盾之处)案例1/案例2/案例3/案例4 请根据下面提示,写一篇短文,词数不少于50。In your spoken English class/ your teacher shows you the following picture/ You are asked to describe the picture and explain how you understand it/One possible version: In the picture/ there stands a tree full of fruit on one side of the stream/ Across the stream/ a man is trying to reach out on the edge of the bank for the fruit with a net attached to a pole/ Not far away there is a bridge that can lead him to the tree for more fruit/The message conveyed in the picture is clear/ In pursuing a dream/ we might focus on only one way of making it come true/ forgetting that there may be alternatives/ As indicated in the picture/ if the man is willing to look for other possibilities/ he can find a better and more rewarding way to achieve his goal/ All he has to do is to turn around/ cross the bridge and walk to the tree/案例5 请根据下面提示,写一篇短文。词数不少于50。In an English speech competition/ you are asked to describe the following picture and explain to the judges how you understand it/满分作文 From the picture I can see a pair of proud compasses and a hard-working pencil/ The compasses are big/ drawing a circle with ease/ while the pencil is small/ drawing a line with great effort/ I think the compasses are reasonable to be proud because no one else can do the job better/ At the same time/ however/ he should realize the pencil has his own advantages/ The pencil can do other shapes better than the compasses/ even pictures/ So in my opinion/ while we are confident in ourselves/ we should recognize strengths in others and show due respect for them/ 本文考生以独到的眼光对圆规与铅笔的长处和短处进行了比较,然后联系生活实际,揭示人生哲理,自然到位,并有以下亮点:(1)第二句运用了while连接并列句,表示意义上的转折对比,并且本句还使用了两个drawing现在分词短语作状语。(2)最后一句运用了关联词so/ in my opinion以及while引导的让步状语从句。一、立意与议论理解图片(2/3篇幅):理解时要有升华,有深度,结合现实生活围绕话题进行议论。 1/两个物象的立意与议论 图中出现两个主要物象时,描图和议论时注意两者之间的对比关系。这是有几年高考的热点。 (1)城市雕塑长衫的老者和时髦的少女; (2)大鸟和小鸟; (3)铅笔和圆规。 案例5: 开放作文 请根据下面提示,写一篇短文。 词数不少于50。 In an English speech competition/ you are asked to describe the following picture and explain to the judges how you understand it/可接受的观点思路1:圆规骄傲,而铅笔努力、执著。宣扬一种奋斗精神。思路2:圆规原地徘徊,而铅笔永往直前。鼓励人们为实现人生目标而前进。思路3:圆规可以画出精彩的圆,铅笔可以画出笔直的线。选择适当的工具完成不同的目标。思路4:圆规可以画出精彩的圆,铅笔可以画出笔直的线。不同的事物有自己的优势和劣势。号召人们发挥优势,完成目标。2/ 单个物象的议论图中出现一个物象时,描图和议论时注意抓住漫画所表达的引申含义。 案例6: 请根据下面提示,写一篇短文。词数不少于50。 In your English class,you are asked to describe this picture of a wooden barrel and explain to your classmates how you understand it审图:(1)/ 一个由不同长度木板构成的木桶,水从最短板处流出。(2)/ 结论:人要全面发展,个别缺点会影响人的成功。 团队要共同发展,个别人落后会影响整体的进步。 文体:议论文 时态:一般现在时 人称:第一人称 Possible ideas1/ What you see at the first glance may limit your thinking/ 2/ We must look deeper so as not to be cheated by the surface/ 3/ Everyone can grow old/ Treasure your time/ 4/ Its more than one way to look at something/ 5/ We should have positive attitude towards failure/ (improper)3/ 多个物象的议论图中出现多个物象时,描图和议论时注意抓住漫画所表达的主要矛盾,要有的放矢、中心突出。案例7: 请根据下面提示,写一篇短文。词数不少于50。 In your English class,you are asked to describe the following picture and explain to your classmates how you understand itrun downPossible ideas:1/ sunset-forget the past-value the normal daily life/2/ two girls-one brave (success)/ one afraid (failure)3/ sunset-sad-let it pass-wait for sunrise4/ two girls help each other-friendship help us succeed5/ watch sunrise-get hope/courage-get over the difficulties图片信息:1/ 两个孩子2/ 孩子面前的弯弯的小路、高山、树木3/ 远方光芒四射、蓬勃而出的太阳二、描图 用第三人称和一般现在时描述图片内容,描图时做到内容充实、具体、形象、生动。描图时尽量不加入个人观点。 描图是为下文对漫画的理解奠定基础,要根据所要阐明的理解内容有的放矢、中心突出,而并非仅仅将漫画中的所有看到的内容都逐一罗列出来。 描图篇幅一般不超过1/3。From the picture I can see a pair of proud compasses and a hard-working pencil/ The compasses are big/ drawing a circle with ease/ while the pencil is small/ drawing a line with great effort/In the picture/ we can see it is raining hard/ But to our surprise/ a gentleman is watering flowers/ holding an umbrella in his hand/In the picture/ a boy is trying hard to push forward the hour hand of the clock while an old man is making a great effort to push backward the minute hand of the same clock/ Both of them are trying their best/ but in the opposite directions/ 图片信息: 1/ 狂风 2/ 一棵树被狂风吹折; 3/ 草只被吹弯,依然挺立;As can be seen in the picture/ a tree is broken by the strong wind/ while the grass still stays as it is/ Weak and small as the grass is/ it can stand the strong wind/注意: 1/图片概括的意境; 2/描图的倾向性; 3/各个环节的衔接过渡; 开放作文试题的要求:4逻辑清楚:完整呈现推理过程,对漫画的描述与个人理解的表达相互呼应,构成一个有机的整体。5语言规范,交际得体:用词准确,表述清晰,有条理,语言流畅。 开放作文的立意1) 两个物象(大树和小草)的对比。大树虽然强壮,但经不住狂风;小草虽然弱小,但是很坚韧。内心的力量强大很重要。2) 尺有所短,寸有所长。每个人都有自己擅长的一面。不要因为自己在某方面比别人强,就因此而看不起别人。他人也有你所不及的地方。取长补短,互相学习才能自我完善。 3)不以外表判断人;4)坚持真理,刚直不阿;5)学会适应环境,适者生存;6)面对不同的形势要学会灵活的改变;7)遇到困难要学会改变自我;8)攀登越高,风险越大;开放作文的dozens of不当立意1) 主观臆断型:树干是空的;骄傲自大易败;2)空***来风型:乐观积极的态度;风不能乱吹;3)无病***型:态度决定一切;坚持就是胜利;4)胡言论语型:独生子女问题;常怀怜悯之心; 人不能太另类;5)文化干扰型:木秀于林,风必吹之;***打出头 鸟;树大招风;6)一叶障目型:环境污染,生态平衡;案例8 请根据下面提示及图画/写一篇英语短文。In an English class/you are asked to describe the following picture and explain to the class how you understand it/1/文体信息(1)体裁/开放性作文(夹叙夹议类)(2)时态/一般现在时态为主(3)人称/第三人称2/思路点拨 (1)首先要仔细审图/并对画中的含义加以描述/(2)分析产生这种现象的原因/(3)你的看法或建议。在陈述个人观点时/为了条理清晰起见/可使用first(ly)/second(ly)等过渡衔接词As can be seen from the picture/ a school boy is burdened with such heavy homework that it seems as if he can hardly bear it any more/What has caused students heavy learning loads in China? Firstly/ most teachers intend to give their students a lot of exercises to do after school in order to le
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