上海交通大学第二学期英语讲义详解版答案Key to rcise Twox
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Key to Exercise TwoSection 1/ Compound DictationMartha Leathes belief is derived from(come from) her experience with children/not so much the one she is taught but her own/ the task of raisingchildren is often a test of belief as parents come to realize that their actions provide the lessons that children (1) assimilate同化 to be similar/ Here is Martha Leathewith her essay for this I believe/Several weeks ago/ I got a call from a good friend whose husband had just been diagnosed with (被诊断为)prostate cancer(前列腺癌)/ “Do we tell the kids?” she asked/“Absolutely/” I answered/“Do we use the C-word (cancer委婉语)?”“Yes/ I think you do/” I said/ “The boys deserve to know the truth/ however heartbreaking it is/”Adults always insist that children be honest/ but how many of us are honest with our kids/ particularly about the tough stuff/ death/ sex/ (2) corruption(***)/ our own failings?I believe in telling children the truth/ I believe this is vital for their understanding of the world/ their (3) confidence and the development of their morals and values/This does not mean kids need to be unnecessarily (4) frightened/ or told more than they can handle/ When our son was 6/ he tagged along紧跟,尾随 while his older sister got her nose-ring changed/ In the shop/ he sifted through (check and sort carefully) a big bin of brightly (5) packaged condoms/ “What are these?” he said/“Condoms/” I replied/“What are they for/” he asked/ Briefly/ I explained what condoms are/ (6) precisely where you put them and how they work/“Oh/” he said/ clearly (7) disappointed/ I think/ that they werent candy/ It wasnt a lot of information/ but it was the truth/Many people think they are protecting children when they spare them the truth/ I disagree/ I believe children (8) possess an enviable (to be envied) ability to cope with and make sense of what even adults find confounding困惑的/When we are honest with children/ we also validate their intuition/ If we can admit that/ yes/ people can be mean/ grandma does have a drinking problem/ divorce is painful/ we allow children to trust their gut/ (9) They can begin to recognize and rely on their own inner voice/ which will speak to them throughout their lives/ Kids also have an uncanny (surpassing the normal异乎寻常) sense of when something is up/ They realize when were uneasy/ they can tell when were lying/One night/ I was in the car with our two oldest daughters/ (10) It was dark and cozy the perfect time for a heart-to-heart conversation/ Out of the blue/ one of our kids said/ “So/ Mom/ have you ever smoked pot(***)?” I stalled a little/ but the girls persisted/ They had me/ and they knewit/ So I told them the truth/ albeit(虽然)somewhat abridged(缩略)/ What ensued was a frank discussion about the lures and perils of drugs/ I believe my honesty was much more effective than warnings or platitudes(陈词滥调)/These same daughters are in college now/ we have two other kids still at home/ (11) And while I have made plenty of mistakes as a parent/ I do have clear and open relationships with each of our kids/ I believe that my being truthful with our children has paid off/ because Im pretty sure that now they are honest with me/ 上述是一篇叙述型的文章,不是考试类型,就练习一下dictation题型及熟悉语音语调和速度。Section 2 Note-takingKey1/ One of differences is driving on the wrong side of the road/ and you have to teach yourself to look the other way/2/ Differences between American English and British EnglishExamples (1)The British word “queue” means in America “line”/(2) “Chips” in British English is “French fries” in American English/ (3)”Crisps” in British English means “ potato chips” or “chips” in American English/3/ Differences between the young people in Britain and the young people in the U/S/A/ the younger people in Britain seem to be much more radical than the younger people in the United States/ Examples(1) a lot of males in Britain with earrings in one of their ears/ but you dont see that in America that much/ (2) So many of the young people wear black clothing in Britain/ but in the U/S/A you see all different types of bright colors/ (3) British young people are more politically aware and know about the U/S/ and how its run/ but American young people just have a vague understanding of a few other countries Reasons/ Its just because of the press/ Note-taking不是期末听力考试类型, 但帮助学生练习如何听出文章结构大意,并记录有用的细节。Section 3/ Short Answer Questions/ Study/ Fast-paced TV cartoons reduce kids learning1) young children have difficulty learning immediately after watching fast-paced television cartoons full of images and activities that are not possible in real life/2) ability to concentrate/ learn/ and solve problems - what psychologists call “executive function/”3) That is the part of the brain where problem-solving and related functions are located/4) its difficult to process since it doesnt really happen in real life/”5) whether watching these kinds of programs have a permanent effect on learning/Tip/ 先看问题,带着问题去听,抓住重点和细节。一般问题都是按文章先后顺序来问的。最拍漏信息,如有遗漏,尽量根据文章来推断。Study/ Fast-paced TV cartoons reduce kids learningSpeed and unrealistic situations affect preschoolersA new study finds that 1) young children have difficulty learning immediately after watching fast-paced television cartoons full of images and activities that are not possible in real life/Its what some people are calling the “SpongeBob effect/”“SpongeBob SquarePants” is a cartoon character whose surreal and improbable undersea adventures are watched by children around the world/University of Virginia researchers wanted to find out whether watching “SpongeBob” affected kids ability to learn immediately after seeing the show/To find out/ a group of four-year-old children watched either a short video of “SpongeBob/” or a slower-paced and more realistic animated show called “Caillou/”A third group of children spent time drawing instead of watching television/Afterward/ explains researcher Angeline Lillard/ they all took standardized tests designed to measure their 2) ability to concentrate/ learn/ and solve problems - what psychologists call “executive function/”“And what we found is that children who had been in the “SpongeBob” group were performing only about half as well as the other children/ So they were at about 50 percent capacity/”The four-year-olds in this study are at a critical age/ when the prefrontal cortex is still developing/ 3) That is the part of the brain where problem-solving and related functions are located/Lillard says one reason why a show like “SpongeBob SquarePants” might affect learning is its combination of speed and content/“Its fast-paced and its fantastical/ So the child is needing to process all this new stuff really/ really fast/ and 4) its difficult to process since it doesnt really happen in real life/”Lillard cautions that her study looked only at how young children learned immediately after watching the TV shows/ so she cannot say 5) whether watching these kinds of programs have a permanent effect on learning/“But I would say that parents might want to think about when children watch such shows and perhaps how frequently they watch them as well because they are certainly compromised immediately afterwards/”Lillards study is published in the journal Pediatrics/Section 4/ Listening and Translating听译技巧上次已经提示过了;平时尽量训练自己能听完整句子,及时速记记下要点。不要试图写下完整句子,甚至是完整单词词组。1/ Japan was hit worse than many other countries in the global financial crisis/ Exports tumbled (暴跌;摔倒)and joblessness rose to its highest levels in several years/ Some political analysts say/ the unemployment and economic distress苦恼/ that contribute to hunger helped Japans Democratic Party/ win a landslide victory压倒性优势的胜利 in recent elections/ 日本受全球金融危机的影响超过其他地方。出口急剧下滑,失业率上升至几年来最高水平。一些***分析家称/,失业和经济低迷导致饥饿/,这种情况帮助日本***党/在最近的选举中获得压倒性的胜利。/2/ A baby born in America in 2009 could expect to live an average of 78 years/ according to estimates from the U/S/ Centers for Disease Control/ Thats still true in many parts of the United States/ But in some places/ life expectancy has leveled off趋平 or even dropped slightly - a rarity in a developed country and/ public health officials say/ a cause for alarm/ A study in the Journal of Health Metrics shows the United States now ranks behind 10 other developed countries /when it comes to life expectancy// even though Americans spend more on health care/ than people in most other countries/刊载在健康度量期刊上的一篇研究报告显示,虽然美国人花在医疗保健上的费用/超过其他大多数国家,/但现在美国人的平均寿命/已经排在了其他10个发达国家之后。翻译时可根据中文习惯转换语序,注意英语句型。3/ The slow economy has hurt city and state governments/ which continued cutting jobs/ But private companies boosted/ hiring by 140/000// particularly in retail/ professional services/ and health care/缓慢的经济损害到了市政府和州政府,致使这些单位继续裁员。但私人企业的雇佣人数激增到140000,尤其是在零售业、专业化服务行业及卫生保健等行业。注意数字听写和中英文数字的转化,可以用***数字的4/ Consumer spending is the biggest driver of the U/S/ economy/ accounting for about 70 percent of total output/ Despite modest increases in the last three months/ revised figur
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